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The most basic type of search is simply typing a word into the search bar and hitting the enter key. For example, typing Productivity into the search bar will find all records in which any of the fields contain the word Productivity. Quite often, however, you will want to search for multiple terms, such as Productivity and Loss, to narrow your search and make it more intelligent.

 

The words that you are searching for are called the search terms. Operators are functions which serve to refine or clarify your search. The following operators are useful tools for searching the databases. They are shown in capital letters for ease of identification, but you do not have to type them in capitals. Concordance is not case sensitive.

 

Note that each time you perform a search, Concordance runs that search on the entire database, not just the current query. If you only want to search the documents that you have in you current query (for example if you have done a query by tag), you must combine searches as described in the next section.

 

Search by Assigned Number

 

Each time you type a search string into the search bar, or perform a query, Concordance assigns that search a number, starting with the number 1. For the duration of a session, you can reference previous searches by typing the number of that search into the search bar.

 

Example: if you open a database and do a search for Productivity AND Loss, Concordance will assign that search the number 1. For the remainder of your session, you can then simply type the number 1 into the search bar, and you can repeat that search.

 

Number-assigned searching is most useful when you want to combine searches.

 

Example: if you do a search by tag (right click on a tag and select Create Query from Tag), that will be assigned a search number, such as 2. Then you can type 1 AND 2 into the search bar and it will search for all documents that are part of both search 1 and search 2.

 

You can review the history of searches and their assigned numbers by clicking on the Review button at the top of the Concordance window. Note that these numbers are cleared after you close your session, so that the next time you open the database, Concordance will start again from 1. The number 0 is always assigned to be all the documents in the database. This is used when you want to clear your search to see all documents.

 

 

Boolean

 

AND

This operator finds records which contain all of your search terms.

 

Example: Productivity AND Loss finds all records which contain both of those terms anywhere in the record. The terms may be in different fields. For example, searching Productivity AND Loss might find records where the field Subject contains the term Productivity and the field Text contains the word Loss.

 

OR

This operator finds records which contain either of the search terms or both of the search terms.

 

Example: Productivity OR Loss will find all records which contain just the word Productivity, all records which contain just the word Loss, and all records which contain both the words Productivity and Loss.

 

NOT

This operator finds records which contain one term but not the other.

 

Example: Productivity NOT Loss will find all records that do contain the word Productivity but do not contain the word Loss. This can be useful if you are trying to eliminate unrelated documents. For example, if you would like to search for documents containing the word Productivity but you don’t want any documents referring to labor, you could search for Productivity NOT Labor.

 

XOR

This is similar to the OR operator but it does not find records which include both of the search terms.

 

Example: Productivity XOR Loss will find documents containing Productivity and documents containing Loss, but not documents that contain both Productivity and Loss in the same document.

 

Proximity

 

ADJ

This operator will locate instances of the search terms where the terms are adjacent to each other in the order given.

 

Example: Productivity ADJ Loss will locate all instances of the phrase Productivity Loss. Loss ADJ Productivity will find the phrase Loss Productivity.

 

This is the default operator that Concordance applies when you type in more than one search term without any operator. For example, if you simply type in the phrase Productivity Loss, what you are actually searching for is Productivity ADJ Loss.

 

ADJ1-ADJ99

If you wish to locate records in which the search terms are within a certain number of words of each other, you would add a number after ADJ.

 

Example: Productivity ADJ2 Loss will find all instances where the word Productivity is followed by the word Loss within two words. This would find phrases such as “low Productivity resulted in Loss of revenue”.

 

NEAR

This operator is the same as ADJ except that the order of the search terms does not matter.

 

Example: Productivity NEAR Loss will find all instances of the phrases Productivity Loss and Loss Productivity. Thus, the search Productivity NEAR Loss is equivalent to the search Loss NEAR Productivity.

 

NEAR1-NEAR99

This is probably the most useful operator. It will locate records which contain the search terms within a particular number of words from each other, but in any order.

 

Example: Productivity NEAR10 Loss will find records where the word Loss is within 10 words of Productivity, either before it or after it. This is a good contextual tool because often the documents you are looking for won’t contain the exact phrase Productivity Loss, but will contain phrases such as “A Loss of Productivity resulted from the stacking of trades” and “with regard to the Productivity on this project, there was a huge Loss”.

 

Context

 

SAME

This operator is used when you want to find two or more search terms in the same field.

 

Example: Productivity SAME Loss finds all documents where the words Productivity and Loss are in the same field. The difference between this operator and the AND operator is that AND will find documents that have both search terms in any of the fields, not just one specific field. SAME ensures that the search terms are within the same field.

 

NOTSAME

This is similar to the SAME operator. It will locate records that have both of the search terms but do not contain both words in the same field.

 

Example: Productivity NOTSAME Loss will find records which contain the words Productivity and Loss in the same record but in different fields. The word Productivity might be in the Subject field and the word Loss might be in the Text field.

 

Limiters

Limiters can be used in conjunction with operators to limit a search to a specific field or exclude a specific field.

 

.

Using this limiter will limit the search to the specific field indicated.

 

Example: Productivity.Text AND Loss.Text will find all records which contain the word Productivity in the field Text and the word Loss in the field Text.

 

..

Using this limiter will exclude a field.

 

Example: Productivity..Text will find all records that contain the word Productivity in any field other than the Text field.

 

Relational Searching

 

These operators are used for sequential type functions or for searching within a field. You can use the two letter text name (for example, LT) or the symbol (for example, <).

 

LT   <   Less Than

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates.

 

Example: BEGDOC < ABC0001 finds records where the field BEGDOC contains a value less than ABC0001.

 

LE   <=   Less than or Equal to

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates.

 

Example: BEGDOC <= ABC0001 finds records where the field BEGDOC contains a value less than or equal to ABC0001.

 

EQ   =   Equal to

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates.

 

Example: BEGDOC = ABC0001 finds records where the field BEGDOC equals (exactly) ABC0001.

 

GT   >   Greater Than

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates.

 

Example: BEGDOC > ABC0001 finds records where the field BEGDOC contains a value greater than ABC0001.

 

GE   >=   Greater than or Equal to

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates.

 

Example: BEGDOC >= ABC0001 finds records where the field BEGDOC contains a value greater than or equal to ABC0001.

 

NE   <>   Not Equal to

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates.

 

Example: BEGDOC <> ABC0001 finds records where the field BEGDOC does not equal ABC0001.

 

CO   $   COntains

Use mainly for paragraph fields like text fields, but also for other fields.

 

Example: OCR $ Productivity finds records where the field OCR contains the word Productivity.

 

NC   !   Does Not Contain

Use mainly for paragraph fields like text fields, but also for other fields.

 

Example: OCR ! Productivity finds records where the field OCR does not contain the word Productivity.

 

WL      Within Limits

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates. Example: BEGDOC WL ABC0001,ABC1000 finds records where the field BEGDOC is greater than or equal to ABC0001 and less than or equal to ABC1000.

 

OL      Outside Limits

Use for fields such as Bates numbers or dates. Example: BEGDOC OL ABC0001,ABC1000 finds records where the field BEGDOC is greater than or equal to ABC0001 and less than or equal to ABC1000.

 

Masking

 

Common wildcards used for masking are the question mark symbol (?), which represents one character, and the asterisk symbol (*), which represents one or more characters.

 

Text Masking: Doing a search for Engineer* will find all records containing words that begin with engineer, such as engineer, engineers, engineering, engineered, and engineer’s. Doing a search for Engineer? will find records containing engineer and engineers.

 

Field Masking: If you have several fields with similar names, such as Deposition1, Deposition2, Deposition3, etc, you may find field masking helpful. It allows you to search fields using a partial name of the field. A search for Engineer.Deposition* will find records containing the word Engineer in all fields beginning with Deposition.

 

Parentheses

 

Using parentheses in searching is similar to using them in mathematics. They are helpful for clarifying your search, particularly when it is complex.

 

Example: If you would like to search for records containing the words Productivity and Loss, but not the word Labor, and you also would like the date to be greater than 12/29/2005, you could do a search similar to this: ((Productivity AND Loss) NOT Labor) AND (DATE > 12/20/2005).